Robert Knowlton, MD

Neurologist and epilepsy specialist

Dr. Robert Knowlton is a neurologist who specializes in diagnosing complex cases of epilepsy, such as those with no clear origin found using standard tests. In his clinical practice, Knowlton combines a variety of advanced diagnostic tests to pinpoint the source of seizures in the brain. He is especially interested in identifying patients who could successfully be treated with surgery and given a permanent option for a life free from seizures.

Knowlton's research focuses on neuroimaging and clinical decision-making in the surgical treatment of seizure disorders and brain tumors.


Epilepsy Center
400 Parnassus Ave., Eighth Floor
San Francisco, CA 94143
Phone: (415) 353-2437
Fax: (415) 353-2837

Hours: Monday to Friday
8 a.m. – 5 p.m.

Neurology Clinic
400 Parnassus Ave., Eighth Floor
San Francisco, CA 94143
Phone: (415) 353-2273
Fax: (415) 353-2898

Hours: Monday to Friday
8:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.

Conditions & Treatments

More about Robert Knowlton


Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center 1989


UCLA Medical Center 1993


UCSF Medical Center 1995

Selected Research and Publications

  1. Tan YL, Kim H, Lee S, Tihan T, Ver Hoef L, Mueller SG, Barkovich AJ, Xu D, Knowlton R. Quantitative surface analysis of combined MRI and PET enhances detection of focal cortical dysplasias. Neuroimage. 2018 Feb 01; 166:10-18.
  2. Baud MO, Kleen JK, Anumanchipalli GK, Hamilton LS, Tan YL, Knowlton R, Chang EF. Unsupervised Learning of Spatiotemporal Interictal Discharges in Focal Epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2017 Oct 10.
  3. González Otárula KA, Tan YL, Dubeau F, Correa JA, Chang E, Hall JA, Knowlton RC, Kobayashi E. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in patients with surgically treated temporal lobe epilepsy: Presurgical and de novo postsurgical occurrence. Epilepsy Behav. 2017 Oct; 75:252-255.
  4. Muhlhofer W, Tan YL, Mueller SG, Knowlton R. MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy-What do we know? Epilepsia. 2017 May; 58(5):727-742.
  5. Tan YL, Muhlhofer W, Knowlton R. Pearls and Oy-sters: The chapeau de gendarme sign and other localizing gems in frontal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2016 Sep 06; 87(10):e103-5.
  6. Szaflarski JP, Lee S, Allendorfer JB, Gaston TE, Knowlton RC, Pati S, Ver Hoef LW, Deutsch G. White Matter Abnormalities in Patients with Treatment-Resistant Genetic Generalized Epilepsies. Med Sci Monit. 2016 Jun 10; 22:1966-75.
  7. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Knowlton RC, Chang EF. Rate and complications of adult epilepsy surgery in North America: Analysis of multiple databases. Epilepsy Res. 2016 Aug; 124:55-62.
  8. Englot DJ, Nagarajan SS, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Mizuiri D, Honma SM, Mantle M, Tarapore PE, Knowlton RC, Chang EF, Kirsch HE. The sensitivity and significance of lateralized interictal slow activity on magnetoencephalography in focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2016 Mar; 121:21-8.
  9. Panov F, Li Y, Chang EF, Knowlton R, Cornes SB. Epilepsy with temporal encephalocele: Characteristics of electrocorticography and surgical outcome. Epilepsia. 2016 Feb; 57(2):e33-8.
  10. Wang DD, Knox R, Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Auguste KI, Knowlton RC, Cornes SB, Chang EF. Surgical management of medically refractory epilepsy in patients with polymicrogyria. Epilepsia. 2016 Jan; 57(1):151-61.
  11. Fallil Z, Pardoe H, Bachman R, Cunningham B, Parulkar I, Shain C, Poduri A, Knowlton R, Kuzniecky R. Phenotypic and imaging features of FLNA-negative patients with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Oct; 51:321-7.
  12. Jehi L, Friedman D, Carlson C, Cascino G, Dewar S, Elger C, Engel J, Knowlton R, Kuzniecky R, McIntosh A, O'Brien TJ, Spencer D, Sperling MR, Worrell G, Bingaman B, Gonzalez-Martinez J, Doyle W, French J. The evolution of epilepsy surgery between 1991 and 2011 in nine major epilepsy centers across the United States, Germany, and Australia. Epilepsia. 2015 Oct; 56(10):1526-33.
  13. Englot DJ, Hinkley LB, Kort NS, Imber BS, Mizuiri D, Honma SM, Findlay AM, Garrett C, Cheung PL, Mantle M, Tarapore PE, Knowlton RC, Chang EF, Kirsch HE, Nagarajan SS. Global and regional functional connectivity maps of neural oscillations in focal epilepsy. Brain. 2015 Aug; 138(Pt 8):2249-62.
  14. Lee S, Allendorfer JB, Gaston TE, Griffis JC, Hernando KA, Knowlton RC, Szaflarski JP, Ver Hoef LW. White matter diffusion abnormalities in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Brain Res. 2015 Sep 16; 1620:169-76.
  15. Englot DJ, Nagarajan SS, Imber BS, Raygor KP, Honma SM, Mizuiri D, Mantle M, Knowlton RC, Kirsch HE, Chang EF. Epileptogenic zone localization using magnetoencephalography predicts seizure freedom in epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2015 Jun; 56(6):949-58.
  16. Kharkar S, Knowlton R. Magnetoencephalography in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 May; 46:19-26.
  17. Englot DJ, Raygor KP, Molinaro AM, Garcia PA, Knowlton RC, Auguste KI, Chang EF. Factors associated with failed focal neocortical epilepsy surgery. Neurosurgery. 2014 Dec; 75(6):648-5;discussion 655; quiz 656.
  18. Esquenazi Y, Kalamangalam GP, Slater JD, Knowlton RC, Friedman E, Morris SA, Shetty A, Gowda A, Tandon N. Stereotactic laser ablation of epileptogenic periventricular nodular heterotopia. Epilepsy Res. 2014 Mar; 108(3):547-54.
  19. Allen AS, Berkovic SF, Cossette P, Delanty N, Dlugos D, Eichler EE, Epstein MP, Glauser T, Goldstein DB, Han Y, Heinzen EL, Hitomi Y, Howell KB, Johnson MR, Kuzniecky R, Lowenstein DH, Lu YF, Madou MR, Marson AG, Mefford HC, Esmaeeli Nieh S, O'Brien TJ, Ottman R, Petrovski S, Poduri A, Ruzzo EK, Scheffer IE, Sherr EH, Yuskaitis CJ, Abou-Khalil B, Alldredge BK, Bautista JF, Berkovic SF, Boro A, Cascino GD, Consalvo D, Crumrine P, Devinsky O, Dlugos D, Epstein MP, Fiol M, Fountain NB, French J, Friedman D, Geller EB, Glauser T, Glynn S, Haut SR, Hayward J, Helmers SL, Joshi S, Kanner A, Kirsch HE, Knowlton RC, Kossoff EH, Kuperman R, Kuzniecky R, Lowenstein DH, McGuire SM, Motika PV, Novotny EJ, Ottman R, Paolicchi JM, Parent JM, Park K, Poduri A, Scheffer IE, Shellhaas RA, Sherr EH, Shih JJ, Singh R, Sirven J, Smith MC, Sullivan J, Lin Thio L, Venkat A, Vining EP, Von Allmen GK, Weisenberg JL, Widdess-Walsh P, Winawer MR. De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. Nature. 2013 Sep 12; 501(7466):217-21.
  20. Ver Hoef LW, Paige AL, Riley KO, Cure J, Soltani M, Williams FB, Kennedy RE, Szaflarski JP, Knowlton RC. Evaluating hippocampal internal architecture on MRI: inter-rater reliability of a proposed scoring system. Epilepsy Res. 2013 Sep; 106(1-2):146-54.

Publications are derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and provided by UCSF Profiles, a service of the Clinical & Translational Science Institute (CTSI) at UCSF. Researchers can make corrections and additions to their publications by logging on to UCSF Profiles.