Anoscopy is a method to look at the:

  • Anus
  • Anal canal
  • Lower rectum

Alternative Names

Anal fissures - anoscopy; Anal polyps - anoscopy; Foreign object in the anus - anoscopy; Hemorrhoids - anoscopy; Anal warts - anoscopy

How the Test is Performed

The procedure is usually done in a doctor's office.

A digital rectal exam is done first. Then, a lubricated instrument called an anoscope is placed a few inches or centimeters into the rectum. You will feel some discomfort when this is done.

The anoscope has a light on the end, so your health care provider can see the entire area. A sample for biopsy can be taken, if needed.

How to Prepare for the Test

Often, there is no preparation needed. Or, you may receive a laxative, enema, or other preparation to empty your bowel. You should empty your bladder before the procedure.

How the Test will Feel

There will be some discomfort during the procedure. You may feel the need to have a bowel movement. You may feel a pinch when a biopsy is taken.

You can usually return to normal activities after the procedure.

Why the Test is Performed

This test may be used to determine whether you have:

  • Anal fissures
  • Anal polyps
  • Foreign object in the anus
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Tumors

Normal Results

The anal canal appears normal in size, color, and tone. There is no sign of:

  • Bleeding
  • Polyps
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Other abnormal tissue

What Abnormal Results Mean

Abnormal results may include:

  • Abscess
  • Fissures
  • Foreign object in the anus
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Polyps (non-cancerous or cancerous)
  • Tumors


There are few risks. If a biopsy is needed, there is a slight risk of bleeding and mild pain.


Nyberg SM. Anoscopy. In: Dehn RW, Asprey DP, eds. Essential Clinical Procedures. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 30.

Review Date: 9/17/2016

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