Vagal nerve stimulation is a treatment used to reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures when medications aren't effective.
Vagal Nerve Stimulation
The vagus nerve is one of many nerves that carry messages to and from the brain. It helps regulate internal organs such as the heart and stomach. Nerve fibers within the vagus nerve are connected to the part of the brain believed to be responsible for producing seizures.
This procedure involves placing a small electric stimulator in the neck around the vagus nerve and a power source near the armpit or chest. The device works like a heart pacemaker to stimulate the left vagus nerve. It automatically sends intermittent electrical signals to the brain and can be manually activated to attempt to interrupt a seizure that's just starting.
At UCSF Health, our neurologists and neurosurgeons have expertise in implanting vagal nerve stimulators to treat seizures caused by diseases such as epilepsy.
Who May Benefit
Patients who lose consciousness during complex partial seizures or generalized seizures, and whose seizures are not being controlled by medication, may benefit from vagal nerve stimulation.
This treatment can result in fewer or less severe seizures, although not everyone sees improvement. In all cases, you'll need to continue to take anti-epileptic medication as you did before the stimulator was inserted. In some cases, your neurologist may recommend that the use of medication be reduced a few months after a vagal nerve stimulator is implanted.
Before inserting a vagal nerve stimulator, our doctors and nurses will thoroughly evaluate your medical condition. They will ask you about your medical history as well as your immediate family's medical history. If your doctor has sent us your medical records, we will review this information. Please mention any medications you take, including over-the-counter medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements and herbal remedies.
Your neurologist will confirm the diagnosis of epilepsy or other disorder causing seizures, and may ask you to undergo imaging tests such as:
The vagal nerve stimulator is inserted during an operation that takes one to two hours. A cable is inserted to connect the stimulator with a nerve in the neck. The stimulator is programmed to stimulate the nerve at regular intervals. The battery in the stimulator will need to be replaced about every 10 years. This can be done during a simple procedure, which doesn't require a hospital stay, using local anesthesia.
You may experience some tingling in the neck or hoarseness during the stimulation pulses. Most patients get used to these feelings over time.
Your doctors will provide follow-up care to ensure that your vagal nerve stimulator is working properly and is helping to control your seizures.For more information, please contact one of our epilepsy nurse specialists:
Maritza Lopez, (415) 353-2134
Mariann Ward, (415) 353-2347
UCSF Health medical specialists have reviewed this information. It is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or other health care provider. We encourage you to discuss any questions or concerns you may have with your provider.
Disconnection procedures are a type of surgical treatment for epilepsy. Unlike resections, disconnection procedures may not involve the removal of any tissue.
The most common surgical treatment for epilepsy involves removing (resecting) the small area of brain tissue where the patient's seizures originate.
RNS uses an implanted device to help prevent seizures before they begin, similar to how a pacemaker detects and treats abnormal heart rhythms.
Visualase Thermal Laser Ablation
In this laser surgery for adults and children with epilepsy, a laser fiber is guided toward the source of a patient's seizures through a small hole in the skull. The laser then heats and destroys the abnormal brain tissue without hurting the surrounding healthy tissue.