HIV and Pregnancy
Why Pregnant Women Should be Tested
If you are pregnant, we recommend you be tested for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) even if you do not think you are at risk. Because this infection may go without symptoms for several years, you or your partner may be infected and not be aware of it. Studies have shown that more than half of women already infected with HIV did not think they were at risk.
It is important to know if you have HIV when pregnant so you can get special care to stay healthy and reduce your baby's chance of HIV infection.
What Is HIV?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, a virus that attacks the immune system. The immune system is responsible for preventing and fighting infections. Most people who are infected with HIV do not have symptoms of the disease even though immune damage is occurring.
When a person with HIV is unable to fight common infections or develops certain types of cancer, he or she is diagnosed with AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It may take more than 10 years for HIV infection to develop into AIDS. Although there is no cure for HIV or AIDS, there are medications that can be used to help a patient's immune system fight infections.
Risk of Mother-to-Baby Transmission
If a pregnant woman is infected with HIV, the chance that HIV will be passed on to her baby is one in four, or 25 percent. However, proper treatment can decrease the chances of passing on the virus to 5 percent or less.
The HIV Test
HIV can be found by a blood test. A positive test means that the person has been infected with the HIV virus. When a person is HIV-positive, he or she may not feel sick but can still give the virus to another person. Almost every person who has HIV infection got it by one of the following:
- Unprotected sex of any kind that allows fluids from you and your partner to enter each other's body
- Sharing needles for drugs, tattoos and piercing of the ear and other parts of the body
- Receiving blood transfusions between 1975 and 1985, before the test for HIV was available
- Being born to a mother who is HIV positive or who has AIDS
Protecting Yourself from HIV
Remember, you can protect yourself from getting HIV by:
- Always using condoms when having sex (vaginal, anal or oral) unless you are sure your partner does not have HIV, has no other sex partners and does not share needles to inject drugs
- Never sharing hypodermic needles
If you have questions about HIV infection, ways to prevent infection, or the HIV test, please discuss them with your doctor or nurse.
UCSF Health medical specialists have reviewed this information. It is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or other health care provider. We encourage you to discuss any questions or concerns you may have with your provider.
Anemia and Pregnancy
During the last half of pregnancy, your body makes more red blood cells which can cause Anemia. Learn more about causes and prevention here.
Coping With Common Discomforts of Pregnancy
Pregnancy produces many physical changes. Aside from weight and body shape, other alterations in your body chemistry and function take place. Learn more.
Diabetes in Pregnancy
Gestational diabetes refers to diabetes that is diagnosed during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes occurs in about 7 percent of all pregnancies. Learn more.
Domestic Violence and Pregnancy
Domestic violence is the most common health problem among women during pregnancy. It greatly threatens both the mother's and baby's health. Learn more here.
Eating Right Before and During Pregnancy
It is important to get the nutrients you need both before getting pregnant and during your pregnancy. Find more nutrition information including macros here.
Exercise During Pregnancy
Most women can, and should, engage in moderate exercise during pregnancy. Exercise can help you stay in shape and prepare your body for labor and delivery
FAQ: HIV Testing
Commonly asked questions regarding HIV Testing including, why, when and where you should be tested and what to do if your test returns positive for HIV.
FAQ: Prenatal Tests
Commonly asked questions regarding Prenatal Tests including, types available, positive screenings, diagnostic testing, health insurance coverage, and more.
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to Prevent HIV Transmission
Commonly asked questions regarding Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to Prevent HIV Transmission including, frequency, side effects, prescriptions and more.
Recognizing Premature Labor
Premature labor occurs between the 20th and 37th week of pregnancy, when uterine contractions cause the cervix to open earlier than normal. Learn more.
Sex During Pregnancy
The pregnancy may alter how a woman and her partner feel about making love, and differences in sexual need may arise. Learn more here.
Substance Use During Pregnancy
While pregnant, it is best to eat well, stay healthy and avoid ingesting anything that might be harmful to the mother's or baby's health. Learn more.
The Circumcision Decision
If you give birth to a boy, you will be asked if you'd like him circumcised. This is a matter to be considered carefully before the baby is born. Learn more.
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San Francisco, CA 94143
Great Expectations Pregnancy Classes
Get ready for the baby! Choose from a variety of classes that prepare moms and partners for pregnancy, birth, baby care, breastfeeding and parenting.
Lactation Consultant Support
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Women's Health Resource Center
Access a range of UCSF women's health resources, such as classes, support groups, a lending library and services focused on pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding.