Eating Right Before and During Pregnancy
It is important to get the nutrients you need both before getting pregnant and during your pregnancy.
In addition, there are a few special considerations for breastfeeding mothers. For more information, please see Nutrition Tips for Breastfeeding Mothers.
- Preconception Make sure you get enough calories to maintain a reasonable weight. Adjust the number of calories you eat as needed to attain your weight gain or weight loss goals.
- Pregnancy Increase your diet by 300 calories per day starting in the second trimester. Monitor for appropriate weight gain and adjust your diet as needed.
- Breastfeeding Add 500 calories a day to your normal pre-pregnancy diet.
- Preconception Protein should account for 12 percent to 20 percent of your daily calories. Make sure to eat 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of your body weight (to convert pounds to kilograms, divide the pounds by 2.2), with a minimum of 40 grams of protein a day. For example, if you weigh 120 pounds, you should eat roughly 44 grams of protein a day.
- Pregnancy During pregnancy, you should get a minimum of 60 grams of protein a day, which will account for approximately 20 percent to 25 percent of your calorie intake.
- Preconception The amount of carbohydrates you should eat varies from person to person and should be based on an individualized nutritional assessment. That said, for most people, carbohydrates account for approximately 50 percent to 60 percent of their daily calories.
- Pregnancy Some women experience gestational diabetes, or diabetes during pregnancy, which may require them to limit their carbohydrate intake to 40 percent to 50 percent of their daily calories. To learn more, please see Dietary Recommendations for Gestational Diabetes.
- Preconception The amount of fat you should eat varies from person to person and should be based on an individualized nutritional assessment. For most people, less than 10 percent of their daily calories should come from saturated fat and up to 10 percent from polyunsaturated fat. Eating monounsaturated fat is preferred.
- Pregnancy During pregnancy your body needs more fat. Roughly 25 percent to 35 percent of your daily calories should come from fat, depending on your carbohydrate goals. Eating monounsaturated fat is preferred over saturated varieties.
Both before and during pregnancy it is important to eat between 20 and 35 grams of fiber each day. This is the same as the guidelines for the general population.
Sodium intake recommendations both before and during pregnancy are the same as those for the general population: 3000 milligrams a day. In some cases, there are medical reasons to restrict the amount of sodium in your diet. Talk with your doctor if you are unsure about your sodium intake.
It is important not to drink alcohol both if you are planning to get pregnant and if you are pregnant. Alcohol exposure during early fetal development can cause serious problems for your baby.
- Preconception It is safe to use any artificial sweetener on the market.
- Pregnancy The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose for use during pregnancy. Check with your doctor before using other artificial sweeteners.
- Preconception It is important to get enough folic acid, or folate, before you become pregnant. Begin adding 400 micrograms a day prior to conception to reduce risks of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida and anencephaly.
- Pregnancy During pregnancy, increase your folic acid consumption to 600 micrograms a day.
- Breastfeeding While breastfeeding, make sure to get 500 micrograms of folic acid a day.
- Preconception Between the ages of 14 and 18, you need 15 milligrams of iron a day. Between 19 and 50 years of age, you should get 18 milligrams of iron a day.
- Pregnancy During pregnancy you need more iron and should get 27 milligrams a day. Some women suffer from anemia and need even more iron, up to 60 milligrams a day as directed by their doctor.
- Breastfeeding While breastfeeding you don't need as much iron and can reduce your intake to 9 milligrams a day, 10 milligrams a day if you are 18 years or younger.
Do not take your prenatal vitamin or iron at the same time as calcium.
- Preconception Between the ages of 14 and 18 you need 9 milligrams of zinc a day. Between 19 and 50 years of age, you should get 8 milligrams of zinc a day.
- Pregnancy During pregnancy you need more zinc and should get 11 milligrams a day, 13 milligrams if you are 18 years old or younger.
- Breastfeeding While breastfeeding you should get 12 milligrams of zinc a day, 14 milligrams if you are 18 years old or younger.
Before, during and after pregnancy while breastfeeding, you need the same amount of calcium, although it does vary slightly by age. If you are 18 years old or younger, you need 1300 milligrams a day. If you are between 19 and 50 years old, you need 1000 milligrams of calcium a day.
Do not take calcium at the same time that you take iron or your prenatal vitamin.
UCSF Health medical specialists have reviewed this information. It is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or other health care provider. We encourage you to discuss any questions or concerns you may have with your provider.
Anemia and Pregnancy
During the last half of pregnancy, your body makes more red blood cells which can cause Anemia. Learn more about causes and prevention here.
Coping With Common Discomforts of Pregnancy
Pregnancy produces many physical changes. Aside from weight and body shape, other alterations in your body chemistry and function take place. Learn more.
Diabetes in Pregnancy
Gestational diabetes refers to diabetes that is diagnosed during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes occurs in about 7 percent of all pregnancies. Learn more.
Domestic Violence and Pregnancy
Domestic violence is the most common health problem among women during pregnancy. It greatly threatens both the mother's and baby's health. Learn more here.
Exercise During Pregnancy
Most women can, and should, engage in moderate exercise during pregnancy. Exercise can help you stay in shape and prepare your body for labor and delivery
FAQ: Prenatal Tests
Commonly asked questions regarding Prenatal Tests including, types available, positive screenings, diagnostic testing, health insurance coverage, and more.
HIV and Pregnancy
If you are pregnant, we recommend you be tested for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) even if you do not think you are at risk. Learn more here.
Recognizing Premature Labor
Premature labor occurs between the 20th and 37th week of pregnancy, when uterine contractions cause the cervix to open earlier than normal. Learn more.
Sex During Pregnancy
The pregnancy may alter how a woman and her partner feel about making love, and differences in sexual need may arise. Learn more here.
Substance Use During Pregnancy
While pregnant, it is best to eat well, stay healthy and avoid ingesting anything that might be harmful to the mother's or baby's health. Learn more.
Great Expectations Pregnancy Classes
Get ready for the baby! Choose from a variety of classes that prepare moms and partners for pregnancy, birth, baby care, breastfeeding and parenting.
Lactation Consultant Support
Get support for all your breastfeeding needs. Troubleshoot with a lactation consultant, find equipment and supplies, join a support group and more.
Women's Health Resource Center
Access a range of UCSF women's health resources, such as classes, support groups, a lending library and services focused on pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding.